Rooted in English Arts & Crafts, this international style (1890–1910) that developed in France and Belgium features organic and curving forms, sinuous lines, and stylized plant forms. Chief practitioners in the U.S. included Sullivan and L.C. Tiffany.
Arts & Crafts
Umbrella term for the movement that began in England in the 1860s and had a second wave in the U.S., broadly 1886–1930.
It was inevitable that the form—not more than a storey-and-a-half tall, with an enveloping roof and usually a porch—would be embraced by tastemakers and builders of the Arts & Crafts movement. The architects Greene & Greene in California called their millionaires’ chalets “bungalows.”
A true Craftsman Home is one built according to plans published in The Craftsman magazine; nevertheless, the term become synonymous with American Arts & Crafts style. Not all Craftsman houses are bungalows; larger houses and those influenced by Swiss chalets, Western ranches, and English stucco houses are included. What they have in common is the time period 1898–1930 or so, lack of ostentation, and natural materials.
Refers to the unique architecture and decorative arts developed by influential artists in Scotland whose work peaked ca. 1885–1910. The style encompasses Celtic, English Arts & Crafts, Japonisme, and Art Nouveau forms and motifs.
Jugendstil The name of an influential German art magazine and translated as “youth style,” Jugendstil became an alternate name for Art Nouveau in Scandinavia and Germany.
Mission A revival style of the Southwest slightly pre-dating the larger Spanish Colonial Revival. Mission also was used to describe Stickley’s “philosophical” rectilinear oak furniture, which was similar to sturdy Spanish Colonial (i.e., Catholic Mission) furniture.
Developed in tandem with the tenets of Arts & Crafts, this residential style (1900–1920) is named for the Chicago-area architects who developed a modern vernacular featuring low, broad buildings integrated with the Prairie landscape, nearly flat roofs, windows in horizontal bands, and anemphasis on craftsmanship over ornamentation.
This movement paralleling Jugendstil and Art Nouveau developed in Vienna, Austria. Architect Josef Hoffmann then founded the Wiener Werkstatte in 1903.
Like Craftsman houses, Tudors made use of such old-English elements as half-timbering, oak wainscots, ceiling beams, and inglenooks.